Saturday, February 25, 2017

Smith Family Headstones, Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery, Picayune

The Simon Peter Smith and Mary Woodard Smith family are all laid to rest in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi. The cemetery is fairly large and the memorial markers well spaced out.  At the time the interments were listed on, there were 281 markers in the cemetery.  

Parents:  Simon Peter Smith & Mary Woodard Smith

Walter Sephus Smith & Annie Lee Ferguson Smith

William Toxie Smith & Margaret E. Wallace Smith

Willard Houston McDuffie & Mary Ruth Smith

Simon Leo Smith & Beatrice Marie Ferguson Smith

Thomas Clarence Smith & Salita Ann East Smith

Sylvia Jean Smith Clark & Fred G. Clark

Friday, February 24, 2017

Mary Woodard, 1895-1970, Lamar & Pearl River Counties, MS

Mary Woodard, daughter of Thomas Riley Woodard and Mary Minerva Warden Woodard, was born on 22 September 1895 and died 13 May 1970 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi.  She married Simon Peter Smith, son of Manson Smith and Elizabeth Ann Reid. He was born 5 July 1878 in Lauderdale County, Alabama and died 15 June 1965 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi.

Simon Peter Smith was first married to Harriet Woodard, the sister of Mary Woodard.  From the union with Harriet, there were 4 children surviving- Nathaniel, Luella, Paul and Annie Bertha. Simon & Harriet divorced and Simon married Mary abt. 1914.

According to the 1910 Lamar County, Mississippi census, Mary, then listed as 18 years old, remained in the home with her mother, (Mary) Minerva Woodard.  

1910 Lamar County, Mississippi, Beat 4, Dist 0091

It is estimated that Mary married Simon about 1914.  The World War I registration card (dated 12 September 1918) for Simon P. Smith listed Mary Smith as his wife.  At that time, Simon was a timber contractor for the Bay Creek Lumber Company in Purvis, Mississippi.  

Mary and Simon were residents of Jefferson Davis County, Mississippi according to the 1920 census. Simon was employed as a "wood contractor for log company".  Their son, Walter was 3 years & 9 months old.  Also listed in their household were the 4 children from Simon and his first wife, Harriet and a boarder, M.B. Smith (probably a relative of Simon's).  Nathaniel possibly worked for the same lumber company as Simon- his occupation was listed as a "wood chopper for log company".  Lumber was a significant industry during the early 1900's in Mississippi.  

1920 Jefferson Davis County, Mississippi, Beat 2, Dist 0075

By 1930, Mary and Simon had moved back to Picayune in Pearl River County, Mississippi and resided off of Bally Creek Road.  There were 4 more children added to their union (in addition to their son, Walter)- sons Toxie, Leo and Thomas and a daughter, Mary. Simon was a salesman in the vegetable industry.

1930 Pearl River County, Picayune, Mississippi, Beat 4, Dist 0006

In 1940, Mary and Simon again appeared on the census for rural Pearl River County.  Simon was doing road work.  Their son, Walter had moved out and they had another child- daughter, Sylvia Jean who was born abt. 1934.  

1940 Pearl River County, Mississippi, Beat 4, Dist 55-13, Sheet #34A

Mary and Simon are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery located in Picayune, Mississippi.  Click here to see their memorial on 

Simon P. and Mary W. Smith Headstone

Children of Mary Woodard Smith and Simon Peter Smith:
1.  Walter Sephus Smith- born 3 February 1915 in Pearl River County, Mississippi, died 15 September 1983 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi; married Annie Lee Ferguson on 24 May 1946 in Picayune.  She was born 11 July 1921 in Mississippi, died 7 November 2010 in Richton, Perry County, Mississippi.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemtery in Picayune. Walter enlisted in the U.S. Army on 12 October 1942 and was released on 5 December 1945.  
2.  William Toxie Smith- born 14 July 1920 in Jefferson Davis County, Mississippi, died 21 January 1989 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi; married Margaret E. Wallace 23 May 1946.  She was born 16 May 1924 in Mississippi and died 10 October 2008 in Picayune.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune.
3.  Mary Ruth Smith- born 7 June 1922 in Pearl River County, Mississippi, died 9 June 1972 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi; married Willard Houston McDuffie.  He was born 20 March 1917 and died 2 December 1987 in Picayune.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune.
4. Simon Leo Smith- born 13 October 1926 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi, died 8 July 1978 in Picayune; married Beatrice Marie Ferguson.  She was born 10 April 1930 in Mississippi and died 2 February 1993 in Mississippi.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune.  
5. Thomas Clarence Smith- born 20 January 1929 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi, died 16 June 1982 in Picayune; married Salita Ann East.  She was born 11 April 1938 in Picayune and died 18 January 2002 in Picayune.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune.
6. Sylvia Jean Smith- born 7 August 1933 in Picayune, Pearl River County, Mississippi, died 1 September 2002 in Slidell, St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana; married 24 June 1953 to Fred G. Clark. He was born 22 April 1931 in Alabama and died 25 April 2010 in Slidell.  Both are buried in the Sycamore Baptist Church Cemetery in Picayune.

Sunday, February 19, 2017

James Theodore Warden, Sr, c.1795- GA>Hancock County, MS

The 1820 Hancock County, Mississippi census shows two Warden/Wardeen households next to each other- that of John Wardeen (with 3 males under age 19, 1 male over age 44, and 1 female over age 44) and James Wardeen (with 2 males under age 10, 1 male age 16-25, 1 female under age 10 and 1 female age 16-25).  I speculate that James was the son of John Wardeen.  The two males under age 10 in James' household were probably his sons, William M. and John Jackson Warden.  The female under age 10 remains unidentified. 

James Theodore Warden Sr was born abt. 1795 in Georgia.  He married Martha Chatham probably abt. 1817.  She was born abt. 1800 in Mississippi.  Several family trees on Ancestry have Thomas Chatam and Mariah or Elizabeth (last name unknown) listed as Martha's parents but I haven't yet followed up on them.

In 1830, there were 8 persons in James' household.  They were probably James and his wife, Martha and 7 children under the age of 20- 4 males and 3 females. The 4 males were William, John Jackson, James Theodore Jr, & Jesse; 2 of the females were Elvira and Martha A.  The other female is unidentified.  

On the census of 1840 Hancock County, Mississippi, James and Martha had 7 children in their household (1 male under age 5, 1 male age 10-14, 2 females age 5-9, and 3 females age 10-14).  If all the birth dates/years are approximate in my records, they would account for only 4 of the 7 children- sons Jesse (born abt. 1826) and George Washington (born 1838) and daughters Elvira (born abt 1828) and Martha A. (born abt. 1829).  Their oldest son, William, had married and moved out.  Their son, John Jackson, would have been about 20 years old and son James Theodore Jr would have been about 16 years old so either they had moved out or were incorrectly listed or unaccounted for by the census worker.  If the census is accurate, there are 3 females that are so far unidentified by me.

I have of yet to find census records from 1850 and 1860 for James and Martha. The next record that I have is 1870 Hancock County, Mississippi.  James and Martha were in their 70's and lived alone. 

This is a copy of a document on, originally posted by Floyd Blanchard, that states the content was typed for ease of reading from the original handwritten letter from Martha (Chatham) Warden to her brother, Thomas Chatham who resided in Montgomery, Texas (click on image to enlarge it). 

The letter mentions sons William, John and James and daughters Elvira and Martha.  It doesn't give any hints about the rest of the children or any additional children.  

I'll post updates if and when they become available.

Children of James Theodore Warden Sr and Martha Chatham Warden:
1.  William M. Warden- born abt. 1818 in Mississippi, died after 1880; married Martha Patsy Spikes abt. 1840. She was born abt. 1820 and died after 1880 and was the daughter of Sampson Spikes Sr and Tempa A. Smith.  Click here for more information about them.
2.  John Jackson Warden- born abt. 1820 in Mississippi, died 4 September 1858 in Texas; married Cynthia Bounds.  She was born abt. 1823 in Georgia and died abt. 1860 in Texas.
3.  James Theodore Warden Jr- born 1824 in Mississippi, died before 1900 in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana; married Mary Angeline Lee, daughter of Reuben Lee and Nancy Lee.  She was born 12 September 1828 in Marion County, Mississippi and died before 1900 in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana.
4.  Jesse Warden- born abt. 1826 in Mississippi.  No further information.
5.  Elvira Warden- born 18 May 1828 in Mississippi, died 12 February 1905 in Pearl River County, Mississippi; abt. 1850 married Stephen M. Morrison (Marson, Marison).  He was born 13 February 1832 in Hancock County, Mississippi and died 19 June 1922 in Pearl River County, Mississippi. Both are buried in the Pine Grove Baptist Cemetery in Picayune, Mississippi.
6. Martha A. Warden- born abt. 1829 in Mississippi, date of death unknown; married William Dunhurst.  He was born abt. 1818 in Germany, date of death unknown.
7. George Washington Warden- born 2 January 1838 in Hancock County, Mississippi, died 12 October 1915 in Pearl River County, Mississippi.  Married first Sarah Ann Lee on 29 August 1861 in Hancock County, Mississippi.  She was the daughter of John Riley Lee and Arsenith Seale and was born abt. 1842 and died 1867 in Hancock County.  He married second in 1877 to Nancy Caroline Seal, daughter of Elias Jefferson Seal and Sarah Sallie Entrekin.  She was born in July 1857 and died 23 January 1935 in Perkistan, Stone County, Mississippi.

Saturday, February 18, 2017

William M. Warden, c.1818-, Hancock & Marion Counties, MS

William M. Warden, son of James Theodore Warden, Sr and Martha Chatham, was born abt. 1818 in Mississippi.  His name (last name spelled Wardein) is listed on the 1840 Hancock County, Mississippi census.  I speculate that he and his wife, Martha Patsy Spikes, were newlyweds. Martha was born abt. 1820 in Alabama and was the daughter of Sampson Spikes, Sr and Tempa A. Smith. Listed directly above William on the same census page was Jesse Wardein, a male age 20-29 who resided alone and listed above Jesse Wardein was John Wardein, a male age 20-29.  John resided with a female age 15-19 and a female age 10-14.  Jesse Warden and John Warden are brothers to William.

By 1850, William's family was in Marion County, Mississippi.  He and his wife Martha had 4 children- Nancy, James, Martha and John Wesley.  William's brother, John, wife Cynthia and their 3 children were listed in House #46 on the census.  

1850 Marion County, Mississippi, House #45

Supposedly John and Cynthia moved to Texas where John passed away on 4 September 1858. William's family remained in Marion County and by 1860 there were 3 additional children in the household- Mary (Minerva), Harriet and Daniel. Their oldest daughter, Nancy, was then married and had moved out.  

1860 Marion County, Mississippi, Family #317

During the Civil War, William enlisted in Company G, Mississippi 2nd Infantry Regiment as a Private.  I don't have his service record so I don't know if he actually served during the war.

I've been unable to locate the 1870 census for William Warden and his family. The next census record I have is 1880, Marion County.  William and Martha's daughter Harriet remained at home.  The rest of their children listed on the 1860 census had moved out.  However, there were also 2 more children born from William and Martha's union- son, D.J. (David Jefferson) and daughter N.B.  I have no clue to the name behind the N.B. initials.  

1880 Marion County, Mississippi, Red Creek & Wolf River

This is all the information that I have on William and Martha Warden.  I've searched census records beyond 1880 and cemeteries without any success.  As you can see, there are various spellings of Warden- "Wardein", "Wardin", "Wordin" and so forth.  I'll post an update if I receive further information.

Children of William M. Warden and Martha Patsy Spikes:
1.  Nancy Warden- born October 1840 in Mississippi, died August 1929 in Mississippi; married Zinamon Lee on 19 December 1859 in Marion County, Mississippi.  He was born March 1838 and died between 1901-1909.  Zinamon was the son of John Riley Lee and Arsenith Seale.  
2.  James Warden- born abt. 1844 in Mississippi, date of death unknown but it was after the 1910 census.  He married but his wife's name is unknown, was written as married on the 1880 Marion County, Mississippi census but wife not listed.  Had one son included on 1880 census- J.S. Warden. In 1910, he was living with his widowed sister, Nancy Warden Lee. 
3.  Martha Warden- born abt. 1846 in Mississippi, died abt. 1896; married on 25 February 1875 in Hancock County, Mississippi to Hansford Lee, the son of Bryant Lee and Caroline Carter Lee. Hansford was born in July 1855.  He died after the 1900 census, exact date of death unknown.  On the 1910 census of Marion County, he is listed as widowed with 4 sons and 1 daughter in the household.  Also in the household is his widowed daughter-in-law, Francis Lee and her daughter, Elmira.
4.  John Wesley Warden- born 3 March 1849 in Mississippi, died abt. 1895, buried in Slade Cemetery, Lamar County, Mississippi; married Emma Allen.  She was born 27 October 1857 and died 21 October 1904 in Lamar County, Mississippi.  Emma is also buried in the Slade Cemetery.
5.  Harriet Warden- 29 February 1854 in Mississippi, died 9 February 1917, buried in Beall Cemetery, Pearl River County, Mississippi.  On 8 March 1885, Harriet married Samuel Rasberry Lee in Perry County, Mississippi.  Samuel was the son of William J. Lee and Elizabeth Janes Lee.  He was born 27 January 1857 in Mississippi and died 4 April 1910 in Mississippi.  He is also buried in the Beall Cemetery.
6.  Mary Minerva Warden- born abt. 1854 in Mississippi, date of death unknown (it was after the 1930 census, however); married Thomas Riley Woodard, son of Derias Woodard and Eliza Debose.  (Click here for more information).
7.  Daniel J. "Dan" Warden- born June 1858 in Mississippi, died after the 1930 census (date of death unknown); married Susan "Susie" Woodward on 1 January 1881 in Harrison County, Mississippi.  Susie was born March 1863 and died after the 1930 census.  She was the daughter of Isaac Calvin Woodward and Jane Cooper Hawthorn.
8.  N.B. Warden- Female, born abt. 1861.  No further information.
9.  Jefferson David "Dave" Warden- born 9 August 1862 in Mississippi, died 10 February 1948 in Forrest County, Mississippi, laid to rest in Midway Cemetery #2, Lamar County, Mississippi; married Roseann Herrin on 19 October 1882 in Marion County, Mississippi.  Roseann, the daughter of Green Herrin and Cynthia Lott Herrin, was born 20 October 1858 in Mississippi and died 30 June 1945 in Lamar County, Mississippi.  She, too, was buried in the Midway Cemetery #2.

Friday, February 17, 2017

David Debose, c. 1780, SC>MS

David Debose or Dubose, was born abt. 1780 in South Carolina and died between 1860-1870 in Harrison County, Mississippi.  He married Rebecca (LNU, possibly Cornwallis or Russell).  The 1840 census of Jackson County, Mississippi shows David Debuske (Debose) had 10 free white persons and 1 slave in his household. This number included 6 males less than age 20, 2 females less than age 20 along with David and an adult female age 30-39, probably his wife, Rebecca.

By 1850, there was only 1 child listed in the household with David and Rebecca- their son, Allen. That was a significant change for them- from a full house with 10 people residing in it to a small household with 3 people, in a period of 10 years.  Where had all of their children gone?  Well, their oldest son, James William Debose had married abt. 1847 and lived in the house next door (house #244) with his wife and their two young children.  Their son, Henry James Debose was married also and resided two houses down (house #247) with his wife and two young children.  Their daughter, Rebecca, too was married with two young children- she and her husband resided in Greene County, Mississippi. Their daughter, Eliza Debose, married Derias Woodard and their family resided next door (house #246).  Their sons, Riley and Walter are unaccounted for that year.  Some say that Walter moved to Texas.  Allen resided at home.  That leaves one more child unaccounted for- a son, unnamed in our family search thus far.

1850 Jackson County, Mississippi

On the 1850 census, David's age was listed incorrectly- he was NOT 84 years old. He was more like 70 years old.  His occupation is listed as a miller and farmer and he reported that he was born in South Carolina.  His wife, Rebecca was born in Georgia according to this same record.

1860 Harrison County, Mississippi, Police Dist #4

By 1860, David and Rebecca resided with son, Henry in Harrison County, Mississippi.  The census taker listed everyone in the household as being born in Mississippi.  Was he in a hurry, or did he receive incorrect information from the household member providing it?  This is why we can't depend on census records for accurate information- there are numerous errors often found in the information. It is assumed that David passed away between 1860 and 1870, as he isn't listed on the next census.

Ten years later, Rebecca is shown on the census in Jackson County, Mississippi, residing next door to daughter, Rebecca "Byrd".  Rebecca probably died sometime between 1870 and 1880, as she hasn't been found on the 1880 census.

1870 Jackson County, Mississippi, Township 3, Range 7

Children of David and Rebecca Debose:
1.  David William Debose- born 15 April 1818 in Mississippi and died 20 April 1902 in Jackson County, Mississippi; married abt. 1847, Deborah Ann Rouse.  She was born 20 December 1822 and died 19 February 1901.  Both are buried in the Dubose Cemetery located in Vancleave, Jackson County, Mississippi.
2.  Henry James Debose- 20 June 1821 in Mississippi and died 05 June 1896 in Pearl River County, Mississippi; married Martha J Woodard abt. 1847.  She was born abt. 1828 in Greene County, Mississippi and died abt. 1920.  She was the daughter of Elisha Woodard and Susan Sanders.
3.  Rebecca Debose- born October 1822, died between 1910-1920; married Edward G. Byrd.  He was born 21 September 1816 and died 20 January 1890 in George County, Mississippi.  Both are buried in the Hilltop Cemetery in Lucedale, George County, Mississippi.
4.  Riley Debose- born abt. 1826 in Mississippi, date of death unknown.  During the civil war, he was a Private with the 7th Battalion, Mississippi Infantry, Company B.  No further information.
5.  Eliza Debose- born abt. 1828 in Mississippi, died abt. 1900; married Derias Woodard, son of Elish Woodard and Susan Sanders.  Click here for more information.
6.  Walter Debose- born abt. 1829 in Mississippi.  No further information.
7.  Allen Debose- born abt. 1834 in Mississippi, died 22 February 1865.  He was a Private with Company H, 1st Regiment, Louisiana.  He was laid to rest in the Chalmette National Cemetery in St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana.  No further information.
8.  Unknown Male

Thursday, February 16, 2017

Elisha Woodard, c.1794-1860, Greene & Jackson Counties, MS

Elisha Woodard (Woodward) was born abt. 1794 in North Carolina.  In 1820, he was listed on the Greene County, Mississippi census along with a female aged 16-25 and a male less than 10 years old. This was probably his wife, Susan Sanders Woodard, and their son, Jesse.

By 1830, Elisha's household had grown quite considerably with the addition of 4 children, bringing the total number of children in his household to 5.

Elisha was still in Greene County, Mississippi by 1840 where he is listed in the census with a total of 10 people in his household- 8 children under age 20 and 2 adults.

On the 1850 census, Elisha and Susan Woodward are listed in Jackson County, Mississippi along with children John, William, James, Sarah Ann and Ira.  This record shows that Elisha was born in North Carolina and his wife Susan was born in Georgia.  All children listed were born in Mississippi. Since it appears that 2 of these children were born between 1840 and 1850, the other 3 should have been included in the 1840 census.  If the numbers are correct, we can assume that 5 of their children (2 sons and 3 daughters) from the 1840 census were no longer residing with them in 1850 which means Elisha and Susan had at least 10 children accounted for- 6 males and 4 females.

1850 Jackson County, Mississippi, House #249

One of their sons not included in their household in 1850 was Derias Woodard. Derias and his wife, Eliza are listed in house #246 on the same census page. They married c. 1844 and had 3 children of their own by then.  

Children of Elisha Woodard and Susan Sanders Woodard:
1.  Jesse Woodard- born abt. 1821 and died December 1849 or 1850 in Greene County, Mississippi; married Martha Ann Ball abt. 1845 in Greene County.
2.  Martha J. Woodard- born abt. 1828 in Greene County, Mississippi, died 1920 in Mississippi; married Henry James Debose abt. 1847.
3.  Derias Woodard- born abt. 1828 in Greene County, Mississippi, death unknown; married Eliza Debose abt. 1844.
4.  John S. Woodard- born abt. 1831 in Greene County, Mississippi, death unknown; married Aurelia Smith on 3 May 1854 in Harrison County, Mississippi.
5.  William Woodard- born abt. 1837 in Greene County, Mississippi.  No further information.
6.  James Woodard- born abt. 1838 in Greene County, Mississippi.  No further information.
7.  Sarah Ann Woodard- born abt. 1841 in Greene County, Mississippi.  No further information.
8.  Ira Woodard- born abt. 1844 in Mississippi.  No further information.

Names and birth dates of 2 other daughters unknown.

This is all the current information I have on this family.  If you have information to be added or if there is information to be corrected, please email me-  Thanks!

Wednesday, February 15, 2017

Derias Woodard, c. 1828-, Jackson & Harrison County, MS

Years ago, I received a copy of the Woodard Family history written by John Cooley.  I lost the booklet during a tornado along with much of my genealogical records which weren't recorded on my computer.  I remembered specifically however, that the father of Thomas Riley Woodard was listed as "Jeriah Woodard", who supposedly came to the U.S. from Germany.  While recently browsing through information on, I came across page 1 of the same booklet that I had.  It was from this page and other sources that I gleaned just some basic information about my Woodard family.  

However, I was unable to find anything in census records using the name Jeriah Woodard or Woodward.  I think it was my cousin Elaine who informed me about the 1850 Jackson County, Mississippi census record that appeared to be the family we were searching for:

1850 Jackson County, Mississippi 

Is it possible that this Derias Woodward and the Jeriah Woodard that Mr. Cooley named in his Woodard history are the same person?  When spoken, the name Derias sounds similar to Jeriah, so I can understand how these two names could be misinterpreted by sound.  However, this Derias Woodward was born in Mississippi.  

I was informed that Derias Woodard married Eliza Debose or Dubose.  On the 1850 census, there are three Debose households listed on the same page as Derias, so that information is believable.  Derias Woodard received a land grant of 159.17 acres in Harrison County, Mississippi issued on 12 January 1889.   

Derias Woodard Land Grant

Children of Derias Woodard and Eliza Debose (Dubose) Woodard:

1.  Rebecca Ann Woodard- born abt. 1845, died 1 July 1933 in Holmes County, Mississippi.  Married William H. Rogers on 24 April 1885 in Wayne County, Mississippi.  
2. Thomas Riley Woodard- born abt. 1849, died between 1890-1893; married Mary Minerva Warden.  Click on his name listed under Family Connections for more information.
3.  John Matthew Woodard- born April 1850, died January 1930 in Lamar County, Mississippi, buried in Pleasant Hill Cemetery, Forrest County, Mississippi; married Frances Cook on 11 May 1882 in Harrison County, Mississippi.  She died in 1933 and is buried beside her husband, John.  
4. Meranda Elizabeth Woodard- born July 1854, died in 1930 in Hazelhurst, Copiah County, Mississippi; married 1st William Page abt. 1875.  He was born abt. 1854 and died between 1910-1912 in Mississippi.  She then married Fred E. Craft who was born abt. 1853 in Alabama.  
5. David Woodard- born 9 October 1855, died 31 May 1899 in Oloh, Lamar County, Mississippi, buried in Midway Cemetery #2.  On 25 January 1883, he married Epsy Snellgrove in Marion County, Mississippi.  She was born 19 June 1865 in Mississippi and died 21 May 1920 in Lamar County, Mississippi.  She is also buried in Midway Cemetery #2.
6. Missouri Liza Woodard- born 19 July 1865 in Mississippi and died 14 November 1952 in Stone County, Mississippi, buried in Ten Mile Cemetery; abt. 1880 married Helaire Eli Ladner.  He was born 14 January 1847 in Harrison County, Mississippi.  
7. Julie Woodard- born abt. 1866 in Mississippi, died abt. 1829 in Lamar County, Mississippi; married George Cameron.  He was born in 1858 and died in 1933.  Both are buried in the Midway Cemetery #2 in Lamar County.  

Note:  This is all of the information that I currently have available on this family and it came from secondary sources and family hearsay.  Therefore, it has not been proven.